Preventing biohazards is our responsibility

Preventing biohazards is our responsibility

In previous articles, we have talked about biohazards. Medical supplies can easily cause biohazards if they are not handled properly, and also pose a great threat to human health. Corresponding to biohazard is biosafety, which refers to the strictness of biosafety protection measures required to isolate “pathogens” in a closed experimental environment. Generally, biosafety is divided into four levels. The higher the level, the higher the degree of harm, and more attention and protection should be paid.

1. Biosafety Level 1
All well-characterized pathogens do not cause researchers to become ill.
For example, canine infectious hepatitis virus (does not infect humans), baculovirus (does not infect humans), guinea pig herpes virus (does not infect humans), squirrel monkey herpes virus (does not infect humans), golden hamster leukemia virus ( does not infect humans), mouse leukemia virus (does not infect humans), rat leukemia virus (does not infect humans), murine mammary tumor virus (does not infect humans), nuclear polyhedrosis virus (does not infect breastfeeding type), adeno-associated virus types 1 to 4 (do not cause disease).
The above means that the biosafety level required for virus culture is 1. For measles virus and mumps virus, under normal circumstances, researchers have been immune to them through vaccines or natural infection, and they can be classified as biosafety level 1. Some countries also classify them as Biosafety Level II.

Biosafety level one does not mean the virus is weak. The measles virus has the largest cumulative number of killings in history among viruses that have not yet gone extinct. At the end of 2019, it also killed more than 5,000 people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Various nuclear polyhedrosis viruses can be so devastating to the insects they target that they can be used as insecticides. The guy listed above that says “leukemia” or “breast tumor” is the one that causes the disease it says on the species it targets.

2. Biosafety Level 2
Moderately infectious pathogens associated with some common human diseases and potentially dangerous.
For example, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, BK polyoma virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and Type 2, Norovirus, Rubella, Varicella-Zoster, Zika.
Biosafety level 2 viruses have caused a lot of injury, disability, deformity, and death to humans. There are many vaccines and drugs against them on the market. However, once a particular strain of the virus in it causes significant damage or exhibits high lethality, people upgrade their treatment to biosafety level three, such as 1918 H1N1, H5N1, H7N9.

3. Biosafety Level 3
High infectivity (can be transmitted in the laboratory through inhalation or accidental stab wounds), pathogens that can be fatal in disease, and require professional protection. Such as SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, new coronavirus, HIV, West Nile encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, buckling virus, Flexo virus, Hantavirus in the laboratory.

4. Biosafety Level 4
Pathogens with high infectivity, high probability of being fatal, or a large number of unknown characteristics require high-level protection. There is currently no effective vaccine or treatment.
For example, Argentine hemorrhagic fever virus, Congolese hemorrhagic fever virus, Ebola virus, Guanarito virus, Hantavirus in animals, Herpes B virus, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, Marburg virus, Sabia virus , Lassa hemorrhagic fever virus, Cosanur forest virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Luyo virus, Machupo virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus.

There is international disagreement on whether the smallpox virus should be placed in biosafety level three or four. The smallpox vaccine is effective, but billions of people in modern times have not been vaccinated.

Medical waste may carry various pathogens, so the disposal of medical waste should be more careful. For medical wastes that may have biohazards, we should put them into biohazardous waste disposal containers, select qualified and regular biohazardous waste disposal containers and use them correctly, which can effectively prevent biohazards. Preventing biohazards is your responsibility.

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An example of a biohazard is norovirus
Biohazard sign
What types of microorganisms are considered biohazards
Biosecurity
Level 5 virus
4th class virus
biological safety cabinet
Biosafety level